Some plans also have a profit-sharing provision where employers make additional contributions to the account and may or may not require matching contributions by the employee. These additional contributions may or may not require a matching employee contribution to earn them. As with the matching funds, these contributions are also made on a pre-tax basis.
A charitable IRA rollover is a qualified charitable distribution from a retirement account to a charitable organization. One rationale for making such a distribution lies in the benefits the donor can receive. These benefits can be significant in both tax savings and impact on a charity. This is especially true when a person is required to take a distribution from their retirement account.
To engineer a direct rollover, an account holder needs to ask his plan administrator to draft a check and send it directly to the IRA. In IRA-to-IRA transfers, the trustee from one plan sends the rollover amount to the trustee from the other plan. If an account holder receives a check from his existing IRA or retirement account, he or she can cash it and deposit the funds into the new IRA. However, he or she must complete the process within 60 days to avoid income taxes on the withdrawal. If he or she misses the 60-day deadline, the Internal Revenue Service treats the amount like an early distribution.
There are subtle differences between what is considered an IRA rollover, and what is considered an IRA transfer. The important thing to know - with either one for the rollover to be tax-free, the funds must be deposited in the new account no later than 60 days from the time they were withdrawn from the old one (unless it's a trustee-to-trustee transfer, as discussed in more detail below).
To help ensure that companies extend their 401(k) plans to low-paid employees, an IRS rule limits the maximum deferral by the company's highly compensated employees (HCEs) based on the average deferral by the company's non-highly compensated employees (NHCEs). If the less compensated employees save more for retirement, then the HCEs are allowed to save more for retirement. This provision is enforced via "non-discrimination testing". Non-discrimination testing takes the deferral rates of HCEs and compares them to NHCEs. In 2008, an HCE was defined as an employee with compensation greater than $100,000 in 2007, or as an employee that owned more than 5% of the business at any time during the year or the preceding year. In addition to the $100,000 limit for determining HCEs, employers can elect to limit the top-paid group of employees to the top 20% of employees ranked by compensation. That is, for plans with the first day of the plan-year in the 2007 calendar year, HCEs are employees who earned more than $100,000 in gross compensation (also known as 'Medicare wages') in the prior year. For example, most testing done in 2009 was for the 2008 plan-year, which compared 2007 plan-year gross compensation to the $100,000 threshold in order to determine who was an HCE and who was an NHCE. The threshold was $125,000 for 2019, and is $130,000 for 2020.